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Breeds of spanish pigs

Iberian spanish ham is an exquisite delicacy ideal for both daily consumption and high-class events. This iberian product has a spectacular texture, flavor and aroma varying according to the quality, which is defined by the Iberian pigs from which it comes, its racial purity, its food base, the space available for daily exercise and by the Productive processes in factory.

In Spain, there are different types of iberian hams according to their specific races and their racial percentage, but also we can find hams of excellent quality from other breeds of pigs.

Next we will describe the different breeds of pigs raised in Spain and which give rise to the different spanish hams on the market.

Breeds of Iberian Pigs

Iberian breed: it is the swine breed that gives rise to the hams, pallets and sausages of higher quality in the market. These Iberian pigs are the pigs best adapted to the pastures, being very walkers and with a capacity to obtain fat superior to the rest. This fat infiltrates in their meats during the fattening period giving rise to the extraordinary texture and unctuousness that gives rise to the different hams and pallets protected by the different Appellations of Origin of the Spanish hams.

Within the Iberian breed we can differentiate two fundamental types of hams according to the skin color and coat of the Iberian pigs:

black iberian pigs breeds

Black Iberian Pigs Breeds

These Iberian pigs are usually thinner, of greater size and with a greater predisposition to accumulate fat. The black Iberian pig in turn gives rise to two types of hams depending on whether they come from black Iberian pigs interpenetrated or hairless:

Black Iberian Pig: This pig has its origin in the Sierra de Córdoba (Andalusia), being more stretched and containing a percentage of fat lower than the hairless.

Lampiño Black Iberian pig : This Iberian pig originates from Extremadura and the province of Córdoba, being a pig of great fattening during the mountain and having as peculiarity the absence of hair and the transversal folds in its front.
Red iberian pigs breed

Red Iberian Pigs Breeds

This Iberian breed of pig contains a greater percentage of muscle than the black variety and contain a lower percentage of fat crossed. These pigs give rise to three different types of hams depending on the particular specific breed:

Spotted red pig: This breed of pig coming from the Sierra de Huelva (Andalucia) is distinguished by their particular gray or black spots that has on their blond hair all over their body. Also it is denominated Stained of Jabugo.

Retinto red pig: This race of pigs are found in almost all the Spanish producing provinces (Badajoz, Cáceres, Seville, Cordoba, Salamanca, Toledo, Ciudad Real) thanks to their high productivity.

Torviscal red pig: Iberian pig breed selected during the middle of the 20th century from the Negro Negroes of Puebla and Campanario Negro with the Portuguese varieties Ervidira and Caldeira, whose skin can be light or dark. Its own characteristics are a longer and straight back, a greater prolificacy and a leaner meat, having as counterpart a smaller infiltration of fats.
Other Breeds of Iberian pigs

In addition to the breeds that give rise to Iberian hams there are other breeds with meats of excellent characteristics that give rise to hams, sausages and sausages of some of the Spanish appellations of origin. The following are the main non-Iberian breeds, which are usually crossed with Iberian pigs to obtain better quality meats, mainly the Duroc breed, giving rise to 50% and 75% Iberian hams.

Duroc pig breed

Duroc breed

Swine that gives rise to hams, palettes and sausages of great quality thanks to the good infiltration of fats. These reddish pigs have an excellent growth speed, good prolificacy and high rusticity, making them ideal for breeding with Iberian pigs and maintaining an exquisite meat quality. This breed of pigs is the one used for the elaboration of hams, pallets and sausages under the Designation of Origin Ham of Teruel.
Landrace pig breed

Landrace breed

Swine breeding that gives rise to hams, pallets and sausages of good quality thanks to the correct infiltration of the fats thanks to its excellent conformation, increase of weight, index of transformation and its thickness dorsal fat. Landrace hams are used in most of the industrial crosses for domestic consumption and in the restoration, being authorized in the Denomination of Origin Protected Ham of Teruel and IGP Ham of Trevélez.
Large white pig breed

Large White breed

Horseradish gives rise to hams, sausages and sausages of excellent quality to have a juicy meat, with good texture, conformation and color. This breed is characterized by its white color, great adaptability, good rusticity, high fertility and fertility, and a correct rate of transformation and growth. These qualities make it the most widespread swine breed in the world, being authorized by the IGP Jamón de Trevélez.
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